八十八年預官考試英文試題

Directions: Choose the most appropriate answer to each question according to the passage given.

For questions 1~5

 Animals are not the only Carnivorous organisms in the world. Certain plants-usually those in nitrate-poor soils-occasionally consume meat to stay alive. One of the best-known is the venus-flytrap, found in the bogs of North Carolina. The inside of the plant's kidney-shaped, slightly hairy lobes is coated with a sugary nectar that attracts smaller animals, such as ants, spiders, flies, and even slugs and snails. If a creature alights on two of the hairs at once, a small electric current is generated, which causes a change in motor cell water retention. The motor cells, located at the middle of the two lobes, go limp; the plant closes, trapping the creature-all within about tow-fifths of a second. Digestive juices in the plant then take over, absorbing the nitrogen and other nutrients from the creature. After the soft parts are digested, the plant opens and drops the skeleton to the ground.

  1. The word "carnivorous" is used to describe animals the eat ______.

    1. grass
    2. meat
    3. plants
    4. soil

    Answer: (B)

  2. The word "kidney-shaped" is to describe something that is in the shape of a(n) ______.

    1. octagon
    2. square
    3. triangle
    4. irregular oval

    Answer: (D)

  3. The word "alight" means ______

    1. to burn
    2. to adjust
    3. to land
    4. to make less heavy

    Answer: (C)

  4. When something goes "limp," it becomes ______.

    1. stronger
    2. weaker
    3. denser
    4. thicker

    Answer: (B)

  5. "Nutrients" are ______.

    1. substances
    2. gases
    3. insects
    4. plants

    Answer: (A)

For questions 6~10

 The procedure of donating blood has been in use since World I Blood is needed for transfusion, mainly for surgical procedures and for accident victims. Donors usually give a pint of whole blood, which is then divided into platelets, white blood cells, and red blood cells.

 One can donate blood (for red blood cells) about once every two months. Another form of donation called pheresis is just for donating platelets, which are separated from the blood and used for patients going through bone marrow transplants or chemotherapy. A pint of blood is collected, the platelets are removed, and then the processed blood is transfused back to the donor.

 This process takes place eight times to get the amount of platelets needed. Pheresis donors can give platelets every two weeks, because the body replaces the platelets more quickly than it replaces red blood cells. In addition, this method yields as many platelets as ten normal whole blood donations.

 Donated blood is routinely tested for a multitude of foreign bodies, such as HIV (which causes AIDS), hepatitis B, and syphilis. In addition, blood that will be used by newborns and infants is usually irradiated to eliminate harmful elements in the blood.

  1. "Chemotherapy" is a treatment which may need a large supply of ______.

    1. white blood cells
    2. red blood cells
    3. platelets
    4. whole blood

    Answer: (C)

  2. The purpose of "pheresis" is to collect ______ only.

    1. whole blood
    2. platelets
    3. red blood cells
    4. white blood cells.

    Answer: (B)

  3. Which of the following titles is the best for this passage?

    1. Donating Blood
    2. Donated Blood
    3. Donors
    4. Platelets

    Answer: (A)

  4. One can donate platelets as often as ______.

    1. once every two months
    2. once every two weeks
    3. eight times a year
    4. ten times a month

    Answer: (B)

  5. Which of the following ideas is "NOT" found in the passage?

    1. Donated blood may contain harmful elements.
    2. Blood may be needed for surgical procedures.
    3. Blood donors usually give a pint of whole blood at a time.
    4. A white blood cell is larger than a red than a red blood cell in size.

    Answer: (D)

For questions 11~15

 New developments in food preservation technology include irradiating some foods with gamma radiation to keep them fresh. The procedure is relatively simple; Food travels by conveyer belt through an irradiation chamber containing pellets of gamma-emitting radioisotopes (usually cobalt-60). As the food passes , the gamma radiation destroys bacteria, molds , and yeasts that cause spoilage. The radiation is also used to sterilize vacuum-packed meat, which then can be stored for years at room temperature.

 Irradiation has been approved in the United States for use with spices and bacon and in the state of Florida for use with strawberries. Although food irradiation has been approved in more than 30 nations and for greater than 40 different foods, it is not widely accepted by the public in the United States. One concern is that the energetic radiation might break down and rearrange given the low radiation levels such concerns are not justified, and they point instead to the benefits of prolonging foods' shelf life-thus increasing world food supplies.

  1. "To sterilize" means ______.

    1. to make something completely free from germs
    2. to cause spoilage
    3. to put something into a bag
    4. to heat something until it is eatable

    Answer: (A)

  2. A "radioisotope" is ______.

    1. a method
    2. an instrument
    3. a machine
    4. a substance

    Answer: (B)

  3. Which of the following foods is "NOT" mentioned in the passage?

    1. bacon
    2. banana
    3. meat
    4. strawberries

    Answer: (B)

  4. According to the passage, which of the following statements is "NOT" true?

    1. Food irradiation gas been approved by a number of nations for various foods.
    2. Food irradiation is not widely accepted by Americans.
    3. The procedure of irradiating foods is very complicated.
    4. Some people are worried about the safety of irradiated foods.

    Answer: (C)

  5. Which of the following ideas is "NOT" mentioned in the passage?

    1. Irradiation is one of the new developments in food preservation technology.
    2. Prolonging foods' shelf life can increase world food supplies.
    3. Radiation might create harmful materials in foods.
    4. Food value is usually measured in vitamins ,minerals ,or calories.

    Answer: (D)

For questions 16~20

 When certain metals such as lead or mercury are cooled to temperatures very near absolute zero, they exhibit a phenomenon known as superconductivity, where they lose almost all resistance to the flow of electric current. If a current is set moving in a closed loop of superconducting wire, the current will containue to flow indefinietly.

 Superconductors are used to make very powerful electromagnets for particle accelerators. Someday, they may be used to build trains that float above their tracks on magnetic fields, allowing them to travel at a very high speed because of the reduced friction. Superconductors also may be used to build superfast computers.

 Until recently, the highest temperature at which any known superconductor would operate was around 22K, or 22 degrees above absolute zero. Such superconductors must be cooled by immersing them in liquid helium, which boils at about 4K. Unfortunately, liquid helium is expensive and in fairly short supply. Recently, new ceramic materials have been found that become superconducting at temperature up to around 70K. These can be cooled with liquid nitrogen, which is much cheaper and more abundant.

 So far these new materials have not been able to carry as much current as metal superconductors, and because they are ceramics, they have been difficult to form into wires. Eventually, superconductors may be cooled with conventional refrigeration equipment. But the real dream is to find superconductors that function at room temperature.

  1. Ceramic superconductors are better than metal ones because they ______.

    1. can be formed into wires easily
    2. can carry much more electric current
    3. become superconducting at a higher temperature
    4. can function at room temperature

    Answer: (C)

  2. The "superconductivity" of certain materials is caused by ______.

    1. a very low temperature
    2. a very high moving speed
    3. a very high magnetic force
    4. A very low air pressure

    Answer: (A)

  3. The capital letter "K" in this passage (as in "22K")is used as the symbol for ______.

    1. the boiling point of water
    2. the number of a thousand
    3. electrical resistance
    4. absolute temperature

    Answer: (D)

  4. Which of the following ideas is "NOT" found in the passage?

    1. Absolute zero is the theoretical temperature where all molecular motion stops.
    2. Liquid helium boils at about 4K.
    3. Liquid nitrogen is more abundant than liquid helium.
    4. Mercury can become superconductive.

    Answer: (A)

  5. Which of the following statements is "NOT" the according to the passage?

    1. Lead can lose almost all resistance to the flow of electric current because of low temperature.
    2. Superconductors may be used to build trains that float above their tracks.
    3. Ceramic superconductors can carry as much current as metal ones do.
    4. Liquid nitrogen is much cheaper than liquid helium.

    Answer: (C)

For questions 21~25

 Radar has been used since World War Ⅱ to locate and track storms all over the world. Radar antennas send out radio wave pulses toward the clouds. All types of precipitation and even boundaries created by air temperature differences reflect some of the waves back to the antennas. The received radio wave data are plotted on maps, which are used to create many of the weather maps we see on television and in newspapers.

 The latest weather radar techniques use the Doppler effect-a phenomenon discovered by Austrian scientist Christian Doppler in 1842, who noted that the frequency of sound waves from an approaching source is shifted to a higher frequency and that those receding source is shifted to a lower frequency. The same principle is applied to Doppler radar-radar the gathers radio wave frequency to "read" weather events.

 Doppler radar can determine precipitation moving toward a weather station, from the increase in the radio wave frequency reflected from the clouds. The radar detects any frequency changes in the speed of the clouds and uses the data to show wind patterns. For example, if the precipitation is being blown away from the antenna, the frequency of the radio waves decreases. Doppler radar is also used to predict tornadoes: The changeable winds around a storm could indicate the internal circulation in a storm that could lead to a twister.

  1. The word "receding" means ______.

    1. going down
    2. going up
    3. moving away
    4. coming out

    Answer: (C)

  2. Radar is introduced in this passage mainly as a device to detect ______.

    1. aircraft
    2. ships
    3. storms
    4. missiles

    Answer: (C)

  3. In this passage, which of the following is mentioned as a type of "precipitation"?

    1. snow
    2. hail
    3. cloud
    4. rain

    Answer: (C)

  4. The word "pulse" in this passage refers to ______.

    1. heartbeat
    2. speed
    3. air pressure
    4. wave

    Answer: (D)

  5. Which of the following ideas is found in the passage?

    1. Weather information can be gathered from space via satellites.
    2. Weather balloons are not very reliable.
    3. Wind patterns can be detected by Doppler radar.
    4. Doppler radar is very expensive.

    Answer: (C)